Java: Create self-signed TLS/SSL certificates for Tomcat
To use an TLS certificate with Tomcat, you need to store it in a Java keystore File. You can generate both the keystore and the certificate using the Java command
Step 0: Find your
Make sure you have Java and
keytool command (ships with Java) installed. If you installed the JDK or JRE yourself it may not be in your
For example, my
keytool is in
If you do not know where to look, use the following commmand:
find / -name keytool -type f 2>/dev/null
Step 1: Generate the keystore and the certificate
Before we begin, a note about the "alias" and the "common name" of the certificate:
- The alias is simply a "label" used by Java to identify a specific certificate in the keystore (a keystore can hold multiple certificates). It has nothing to do with the server name, or the domain name of the Tomcat service.
- The common name (CN) is an attribute of the TLS certificate. Your browser will usually complain if the CN of the certificate and the domain in the URI do not match (but since you're using a self-signed certificate, your browser will probably complain anyway...). HOWEVER, when generating the certificate, the keytool will ask for "your first and last name" when asking for the CN, so keep that in mind. The rest of the attributes are not really that important
So let's generate a strong 4096-bit certificate that is valid for 2 years. Adjust
ALIAS and the path to the key store accordingly
keytool -genkey -keystore /srv/jakarta/.keystore -alias ALIAS \ -keyalg RSA -keysize 4096 -validity 720 # Enter keystore password = # well, enter something # Re-enter new password = # same as above # What is your first and last name? # [Unknown]: example.com # !!! IMPORTANT this is the domain name, NOT YOUR name # What is the name of your organizational unit? # [Unknown]: # enter something or leave empty # What is the name of your organization? # [Unknown]: # enter something or leave empty # What is the name of your City or Locality? # [Unknown]: # enter something or leave empty # What is the name of your State or Province? # [Unknown]: # enter something or leave empty # What is the two-letter country code for this unit? # [Unknown]: # enter something or leave empty # Is CN=example com, OU=Foo, O=Bar, L=City, ST=AA, C=FB correct? # [no]: yes # Enter key password for <ALIAS> # (RETURN if same as keystore password): # Press RETURN
Great, now the keystore has been created (if it didn't exist already) and your self-signed certificate has been added to it.
Step 2: Configure Tomcat
To use the new certificate, configure your Tomcat accordingly:
Activate the HTTPS-Connector in your
<Connector port="8443" protocol="org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11NioProtocol" maxThreads="150" SSLEnabled="true" scheme="https" secure="true" clientAuth="false" sslProtocol="TLS" keyAlias="ALIAS" keystoreFile="/srv/jakarta/.keystore" keystorePass="PW from step 1" />
And that's it! Restart Tomcat and you're ready!